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页岩孔隙定性与定量方法的对比研究
Comparative study on qualitative and quantitative methods for shale pore characterization
张 涛 张希巍
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DOI:10.12055/gaskk.issn.1673-3177.2017.04.005
作者单位:东北大学深部金属矿山安全开采教育部重点实验室
中文关键字:页岩 孔隙度 定性定量 扫描电镜 二维数值统计 核磁共振 压汞 蒸馏水饱和法
英文关键字:Shale; Porosity; Qualitative and quantitative; Scanning electron microscope; 2D numerical statistics; Nuclear magnetic
中文摘要:孔隙度是表征含气页岩储层储集性能的重要参数。但是利用不同方法测量页岩孔隙度时,受测量机理、误差源及尺
寸效应等的影响有可能使得测试结果不一致。为此,运用电镜扫描法、图像数字统计法、液体饱和法、压汞法(MIP)和核磁共
振(NMR)等方法,通过对页岩样品孔隙度和孔隙结构的研究,对表征页岩孔隙的定性与定量方法进行了对比分析。结果表明:
①光学显微镜得到的数值统计孔隙度与物理测定值接近,对页岩孔隙定性的同时具有定量的实际意义; ②液体饱和法测量时页岩
基质内产生水化损伤,孔隙度存在先升后降行为,得到的孔隙度比实际值偏大;③ MIP 无法检测2.98 nm 以下或更小孔径的孔
隙度信息,且使用破碎样品容易丢失页岩层理间隙孔,使孔隙度整体偏小,MIP 的孔隙分布曲线可方便地半定性样品中的孔隙分
布特征; ④ NMR 能够实现页岩孔隙度的快速无损测量,但受到样品饱和度和仪器回波间隔设定的影响,所测孔隙度小于页岩实
际孔隙值,NMR 二维弛豫图谱是定性分析页岩孔隙流体的有效方法;⑤ FIB- 氩离子SEM 为现有最高分辨精度的定性成像设备,
氮气吸附法配合MIP 可实现大范围内页岩孔隙的定量与半定性分析。结论认为:对室内页岩孔隙度的定量分析,较之于其他方法
MIP 最为方便快捷,可重复性好;利用高分辨率小孔喉识别设备建立纳米三维数字岩心技术,是进一步定性研究页岩微观储集及
运移机理的有效手段。
英文摘要:Porosity is an important parameter to characterize the reservoir performance of gas bearing shale reservoirs. Due to the effects
of measurement mechanism, error source and size effect, however, the measurement results are different when different measurement
methods are adopted. In this paper, the qualitative and quantitative methods for characterizing shale pores were comparatively
analyzed by applying scanning electron microscope method (SEM), Image digit statistics method, liquid saturation method, mercury
intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and nuclear magnetic resonance method to research the porosity and pore structures of shale samples.
The following research results were obtained. First, the numerically statistical porosity by optical microscope is close to the physical
measurement, so it is of actual significance to the qualitative and quantitative characterization of shale pores. Second, when the liquid
saturation method is used, hydration damage occurs inside the shale matrix, the porosity rises first and then drops, and the measured
porosity is slightly higher than the actual value. Third, MIP is capable of detection the porosity of pores with diameter below 2.98
nm. Besides, the interstitial pores in shale bedding tend to be lost when broken samples are used, so the porosity is overall lower.
Therefore, MIP pore distribution curve is convenient for describing the pore distribution characteristics of samples semi-qualitatively.
Fourth, by means of NMR, shale porosity can be measured fast without destruction, but due to the effect of sample saturation and instrument
echo interval setting, the measured shale porosity is lower than the actual value. NMR 2D relaxation spectrum is an effective
method for analyzing shale pore fluid qualitatively. And fifth, FIB-argon ion SEM is currently the qualitative imaging device with the
highest resolution precision, and nitrogen adsorption method, combined with MIP can perform quantitative and semi-qualitative analysis
on shale pores in the large range. It is concluded that among all quantitative shale porosity analysis methods, MIP is the most convenient
with good reproducibility, and the effective way to study further the microscope reservoir and migration mechanisms of shale
qualitatively is to establish the nano-scale 3D digital core technology using high-resolution small pore throat equipment.
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国内统一连续出版物号:CN51-1159/TE |国内发行代码: |国际标准出版物号:ISSN1673-3177 |国际发行代码:
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