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应对当今地震勘探需求与挑战的高精度可控震源
High-precision vibroseis to meet demands and challenges of current geophysical prospecting
陶知非
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作者单位:中国石油集团东方地球物理勘探公司
中文关键字:可控震源 1.5 Hz 低频信号 160 Hz 高频信号 稳定 频带宽度 信号畸变 激发能量
英文关键字:Vibroseis; 1.5 Hz low frequency signal; 160 Hz high frequency signal; Stability; Frequency band width; Signal distortion;Excitation energy
中文摘要:要解决低信噪比地区勘探、复杂地质体成像、岩性勘探以及精细油气藏描述与监测等勘探难题,进一步提高地震资
料成像和油气预测精度,需不断地拓宽频带和增加地震采集密度。理想地震信号的频带至少为5 个倍频程以上,而炸药震源的效
率和成本无法解决高密度炮点带来的高成本问题,常规可控震源的低频起始扫描频率通常在5 ~ 6 Hz,也不能满足低频需求。为
此,通过对地震资料野外采集和室内处理需求的具体分析,触摸探索了地震信号的激发及辨识瓶颈。指出:①高精度可控震源不
是简单的宽频可控震源,而是涵盖了高精度可控震源模型控制下的低畸变激发信号和宽频地震信号激发2 个概念;②未来可控震
源地震信号的激发不仅仅需要解决高频激发的问题,更要解决低频激发的稳定性问题;③完全可以采用点激发来实现深部探测。
 
英文摘要:In order to solve some difficulties and problems like, exploration in the areas with low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), imaging
of complex geologic body, lithological prospecting, and reservoir fine description and monitoring, and further to improve the accuracy
of seismic-data imaging and hydrocarbon prediction, it's necessary to widen frequency band and increase acquisition density. And
the band of perfect signals shall be at least 5 times of the frequency range. However, the efficiency of dynamite source can't solve the
problem of high cost caused by high-density shot points. In addition, for routine vibroseis, the low-frequency initial scanning frequency
generally ranges from 5 Hz to 6 Hz, which can't satisfy low-frequency demands. So, the demands on seismic-data acquisition and
processing were analyzed, and the bottlenecks of signal excitation and identification were explored. Results show that, (1) high-precision
vibroseis is not simple broadband one, and covers two concepts of low-distortion and broadband signal excitation under the control
of high-precision vibroseis model; (2) as for the excitation of future vibroseis signals, not only high-frequency excitation but also
stability of low-frequency excitation should be solved; and (3) point shots are completely available for detecting some deeper strata.
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国内统一连续出版物号:CN51-1159/TE |国内发行代码: |国际标准出版物号:ISSN1673-3177 |国际发行代码:
主管单位:中国石油西南油气田公司  主办单位:中国石油西南油气田公司勘探开发研究院
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